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时间:2017年10月22日 07:08:41

China has lost the first round of a major legal fight with the Philippines after an international tribunal agreed to hear a case about contested islands in the resource-rich South China Sea.一家国际法庭同意审理关于南中国海争议岛屿的案子,中国在与菲律宾的重大法律交锋中先失一局。The Philippines last year asked a court in The Hague to invalidate the “nine-dash linea demarcation on Chinese maps that China uses to lay claim to most of the South China Sea. China has refused to participate in the case, but has made clear through other channels that it does not believe the court has jurisdiction. But the court decided on Thursday that it had such authority.去年,菲律宾要求海牙常设仲裁法院(Permanent Court of Arbitration)判定“九段线”无效。所谓九段线,是中国地图上的一条分界线,中国用该分界线宣示对南中国海大部分海域拥有主权。中国已拒绝参与该案件,但已通过其他渠道明确表示,中国不认为该法院拥有管辖权。然而,该法院周四认定自己拥有这种权力。Manila brought the case after concluding that efforts to address assertive Chinese behaviour in the region had run their course without any resolution. China and its maritime neighbours have had bitter disputes over dozens of islands, reefs and atolls in the waters for decades, but tensions have risen in recent years as China has grown its maritime presence in the waters.菲律宾政府在认定应对中方在该地区强硬行为的种种努力已无果而终后,将该案提交到了海牙法庭。几十年来,围绕该海域数十个岛屿、礁石和珊瑚礁,中国与其海上邻国之间始终存在激烈争端。不过,最近几年,随着中国在该海域的存在不断增强,这种紧张关系也日渐升温。“It is big and welcome news,said a senior US military official. “It demonstrates the relevance of international law to territorial conflicts in the South China Sea and it shows that sovereignty claims are not indisputable.”一位美国高级军官表示:“这是个值得欢迎的重大消息。它显示了国际法可适用于南中国海领土冲突,并明主权主张不是无可争辩的。”The Philippine department of foreign affairs also hailed the ruling. “We welcome the decision of the Arbitral Tribunal that it has jurisdiction over our case. We look forward to the tribunal’s further hearing on the merits of the case,it said in a statement.菲律宾外交部也对这一裁决表示欢迎。它在一份声明中表示:“我们欢迎该仲裁法庭(Arbitral Tribunal)做出的它对该案拥有管辖权的裁定。我们期待法庭对该案的是非曲直开展进一步听。”The decision by the Permanent Court of Arbitration which hears disputes related to the UN Law of the Sea (Unclos) but cannot arbitrate sovereignty issues came in the same week that the US challenged Chinese territorial claims over the Spratly Islands chain in the South China Sea.就在海牙常设仲裁法院做出这一裁定的同一周,美国挑战了中国对南中国海斯普拉特利群岛(Spratly Islands,中国称南沙群岛——译者注)的领土主张。(海牙常设仲裁法院对与《联合国海洋法公约Unclos)有关的争端进行仲裁,但无权仲裁涉及主权的案件。)China accused the US of making an “illegal incursioninto its waters after the USS Lassen, a destroyer, sailed near Subi Reef, a formerly submerged feature in the South China Sea that China has converted into an island. The move marked the first time since 2012 that the US Navy has sailed through the 12-nautical-mile zone around any islands claimed by China.当时,美国海军“拉森”号(USS Lassen)驱逐舰驶近了渚碧礁(Subi Reef),该岛原本是南中国海一个水下地submerged feature),却被中国改建成一个岛屿。中国指责美国“非法进入”该海域。美国政府此举,012年以来美国海军首次驶进中国声称拥有主权的岛屿周边12海里水域。The manoeuvre, which the US labelled a freedom of navigation operation, was designed to underscore that the US does not recognise territorial claims over artificial islands in the South China Sea. International law allows nations to claim the territory surrounding naturally formed islands, but not around submerged features that have been raised above sea level via construction.这次行动被美国称为航行自由行动,旨在明确表示美国不承认对南中国海人工岛的领土主张。国际法允许国家对天然岛屿周边海域声索主权,但不允许它们对人工抬升至海面以上的水下地物周边海域声索主权。Admiral John Richardson, chief of US naval operations, held a one-hour call on Thursday with Admiral Wu Shengli, his Chinese counterpart who protested the US operation. A US navy official said Adm Richardson stressed that the US would conduct freedom of navigation operations in waters that it believes to be international and not the territory of China.周四,美国海军作战部长约翰理查森上将(Admiral John Richardson)和中国海军司令员吴胜利上将召开了一个小时的远程会议。吴胜利对美方的行动表示了抗议。一位美国海军军官表示,理查森上将强调说,美国会在它认为是公海(而非中国领海)的水域实施航行自由行动。China has stepped up activity in the South China Sea, through which 30 per cent of global trade passes, over the past two years. It has increased the number of patrols by its coast guard, and also constructed five artificial islands by dredging thousands of acres around reefs and atolls. One of those islands a reef called Fiery Cross now has a 3km runway that is capable of handling military aircraft.目前,全0%的贸易活动要经由南中国海实现。过去两年,中国加大了在南中国海的活动力度。它增加了海警船的巡逻次数,还通过在礁石和珊瑚礁周边吹沙填出数千英亩土地,建造了五个人工岛。目前,其中一个被称为永暑Fiery Cross Reef)的岛屿上已修建了一公里长的跑道,足以起降军用飞机。The Philippines, Indonesia and other countries in Southeast Asia and beyond have protested the “nine-dash linewhich China start printing inside Chinese passports in 2012. The US remained silent on the issue until last year when the state department called on China to clarify its meaning.菲律宾、印尼及东南亚和东南亚以外的其他国家,都曾对“九段线”表示过抗议。自2012年起,中国开始把九段线印在新版护照内。去年,美国国务院呼吁中国澄清九段线的含义,在那之前,美国对这个问题始终保持沉默。China published a paper last year which claimed that the court had no jurisdiction to hear the case since Manila was asking it to referee questions about sovereignty. But the court sided with Manila, which had argued that it was only asking the court to conclude that China could not derive territorial claims from islands that did not convey such rights under Unclos.中国曾在去年发表一份立场文件,声称该法庭并无听该案的管辖权,因为菲律宾政府要求该法庭裁断的是与主权有关的问题。然而,该法庭却站在了菲律宾政府一边。菲律宾政府曾声称,它只是要求该法庭判定,中国不能通过那些依据《联合国海洋法公约》规定不承载此类权利的岛屿提出领土主张。The tribunal on Thursday “rejected the argumentin the Chinese paper that the dispute was “actually about sovereignty over the islands in the South China Seaand therefore beyond its jurisdiction. The court has not set a date for the next stage of the case, which will be behind closed doors.周四,该法庭“否定了(中国立场文件中的)论点”。该文件主张,这一争端“实质是南海部分岛礁的领土主权问题”,因此超出了该法庭的管辖范围。该法庭还未确定案件进入下一阶段审理(将为非公开审理)的日期。来 /201511/407453

John Kerry, US secretary of state, has long enjoyed a reputation for being an indefatigable diplomat, engaging in shuttle diplomacy over the Iranian nuclear programme and the Middle East peace process. But few of his initiatives have prompted as much surprise as his recent visit to President Vladimir Putin in the Russian resort of Sochi.长期以来美国国务卿约#8226;克里(John Kerry)一直作为一个不知疲倦的外交官而闻名,在伊朗核问题和中东和平进程中进行穿梭外交。但他很少有哪次行动像他最近的一次访问那样令人惊讶——他来到了俄罗斯度假胜地索契与俄罗斯总统弗拉基米#8226;普京(Vladimir Putin)会面。Coming at a moment of acute tension in east-west relations over the Kremlin’s aggression in Ukraine, the four hours of meetings between the two have been criticised by some in the US as a sign that the White House is buckling. This would be the wrong judgment to make. The US should maintain its robust stance over Mr Putin’s attempts to destabilise Ukraine, but that should not stop Washington trying to engage directly with him if it can.克里的到访正值东西关系因俄罗斯入侵乌克兰而极度紧张的时刻,双方持个小时的会晤遭到美国国内一些人的批评,称这是白宫正在让步的迹象。这样的判断是错误的。美国应该对普京破坏乌克兰稳定的企图保持强硬立场,但这并不意味着华盛顿方面应该停止在可能的情况下与普京进行直接接触。Eighteen months after the Ukraine crisis erupted, the west must remain on guard over Mr Putin’s intentions towards his neighbour. Although a ceasefire between the Kiev government and Russian-backed rebels was signed in Minsk in February, the guns in eastern Ukraine can still be heard in places. Victoria Nuland, US assistant secretary of state, said last week that Russian forces continue to violate the ceasefire “on a daily basis The political elements of the Minsk agreement, including the requirement that Kiev should decentralise powers to the rebel-held regions, and that Russia and its proxies return control of the international border to Ukraine, are yet to be implemented. But the current lull in fighting has created an opportunity for diplomatic dialogue that the US should exploit.乌克兰危机爆8个月以后,西方应该继续防范普京对邻国的意图。尽管基辅政府和俄罗斯持的反叛分子2月在明斯克签署了停火协议,乌克兰东部还有一些地方可以听见声。美国助理国务卿维多利亚#8226;努兰Victoria Nuland)上周表示,俄罗斯军队依旧“每天”违反停火协议。明斯克协议的政治要素还没有得到实施,包括基辅向反叛军占领地区下放权力,以及俄罗斯和其代理人将国际边界的控制权返还给乌克兰。但目前战斗暂时平息,为外交对话创造了一个机会,而美国应该加以利用。One reason why Mr Kerry was right to meet the Kremlin leader is that American contact with Mr Putin is limited, yet he is the only person whose voice counts inside the Russian government. Much of US-Russia diplomacy over Ukraine has involved Sergei Lavrov, Russia’s foreign minister. While he is a seasoned diplomat, he appears to have little political weight. If the Obama administration wants to deliver tough messages to Mr Putin it needs to meet the paramount decision maker.克里与普京会面的举动是正确的,理由之一就是美国与普京的接触有限,而普京又是俄罗斯政府中唯一一个说话有分量的人。在乌克兰问题上,大部分美俄外交都会涉及俄罗斯外长谢尔盖#8226;拉夫罗夫(Sergei Lavrov)。尽管拉夫罗夫是一名老练的外交官,但他似乎没有什么政治影响力。如果奥巴马政府想要将强硬的信息传达给普京,就需要与这位最高决策者会面。Deeper engagement with Russia is worth pursuing if it integrates the US better into the western diplomatic effort on Ukraine. German chancellor Angela Merkel, and France’s Fran#231;ois Hollande, have been the main interlocutors with Mr Putin.如果与俄罗斯进行更深层接触能够让美国更好地参与西方在乌克兰事务上的外交努力,那这样做就是值得的。德国总理安格#8226;默克Angela Merkel)和法国总统弗朗索瓦#8226;奥朗Francois Hollande)是与普京进行对话的主要人物。The US, though more hawkish than the Europeans, has largely subcontracted the diplomatic heavy lifting. But Mr Putin is unlikely to be prepared to engage in talks on a final settlement of the Ukraine crisis unless President Barack Obama is part of the conversation. Grave as it is, the crisis should not stop Washington and Moscow from keeping lines open on other issues. Co-operation over a deal on the Iranian nuclear programme remains firm. But the renewed possibility that the Assad regime in Syria might fall must be addressed by both powers. Russia is fiercely loyal to its ally in Damascus but the US would be justified in pressing Mr Putin harder on what he wants to see happen if the Assads are toppled by Islamist militants.美国尽管比欧洲更为鹰派,却基本上把外交重任委托他人。然而,除非美国总统巴拉#8226;奥巴Barack Obama)成为对话的一分子,普京不可能准备好参与乌克兰危机最终解决方案的谈判。尽管这场危机非常严峻,华盛顿和莫斯科也不应因此断绝双方在其他问题上的沟通渠道。双方就伊朗核计划达成协议的合作依然坚定。但叙利亚阿萨德(Assad)政权倾覆的新的可能性必须要靠美俄两国来应对。俄罗斯对其在大马士革的盟友非常忠诚,但如果阿萨德政府被伊斯兰激进武装分子推翻,美国就普京想看到的情景向他施加更大压力将是正当的。Mr Kerry’s meeting with Mr Putin was portrayed by Russian state media as a climbdown. But deeper engagement does not imply a change in policy. The US and EU should remain in lockstep and maintain economic sanctions on Moscow until the Minsk agreement is fully implemented. Any renewed aggression by the Kremlin should meet a firm response through even tougher western sanctions. Still, given the dangerous state of east-west relations, the principal decision makers ought to communicate more with each other. Talking does not mean surrender.克里与普京的会面被俄罗斯官方媒体形容为美国的退让。但更深层接触并不意味着政策的改变。美国和欧盟(EU)应该保持同步,继续对俄罗斯进行经济制裁直至明斯克协议得到完全实施。西方对克里姆林宫任何新的侵略举动都应通过更强硬的制裁予以坚定回应。不过,考虑到东西关系的危险现状,主要决策者应该更多相互沟通。对话不等于投降。来 /201505/377493


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