泰兴市第一人民医院男科医生120卫生

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 泰兴市第一人民医院男科医生美丽资讯
Thestreet dentists of Delhi: Tooth extraction costs just 50p (albeit with a rustypair of pliers) and rows of dentures come with a try-before-you-buy guarantee德里街头牙医:拔牙只要50便士,尽管是用生锈的钳子,一排排的假牙在购买之前可试用Ascars speed past patients in India’s capital don’t think twice about havingtheir teeth seen to by the city’s popular street dentists.随着汽车穿流而过,印度首都的这些牙病患者想都没想就把自己的牙齿问题交给首都最受欢迎的街头牙医处理。Andit’s not only in New Delhi, it happens in cities all over India.这种事情不仅发生在新德里,几乎遍及印度所有城市。Self-proclaimedroadside dentists perform complicated dental procedures on patients withlimited funds using almost medieval equipment.这些自称的街头牙医所使用的几乎是中世纪的设备来给患者进行复杂的牙科手术。There’sno clinic, no costly chairs, no electric drills, there’s no need for anappointment even, patients just pull up a plastic stool and hope the dentistwill relieve any pain with a rusty set of pliers.没有诊所,没有昂贵的椅子,没有电钻,甚至都不需要预约,患者们就只是坐在塑料凳子上,希望医生能用这些生锈的钳子治好他们的牙病。Street dentist Surinder Singh, 67, from Ludhiana, in the eastern state ofPunjab, is a school dropout but learned the dentist trade from his father. He’snow been in this business for 40 years.来自东部旁遮普邦卢迪亚纳市的67岁街头牙医Surinder Singh是个辍学生,从父亲那里学来了治牙的本事。如今他已经从业40年了。Hesaid: ‘A few decades ago I had 15 patients a day but now it#39;s three or four aweek. I make around 2,500 Rs (#163;25) a month.他说:“几十年前,每天平均有15名患者来找我,但是现在一周只有3、4个。每月的收入是2500卢比(25英镑)。‘Now adays only the poorest of the poor come to see me. They cannot afford theseexpensive clinics but they deserve to be treated too so thank god they havepeople like me.’“如今,只有穷人中的穷人才找我看病。他们没办法去昂贵的诊所看病,但是有病总得治疗啊,所以感谢上帝,他们还可以找像我这样的人。”Patients have to pay 50 Rs (50P) for a tooth extraction and 150 Rs (#163;1.50) fora new tooth.拔牙只需要50卢比(50便士),换牙需要150卢比。A new set of dentures will cost 1,500 Rs (#163;15) and comes with a one-yearguarantee. There’s no consultation fee.如果是一整套假牙的话需要1500卢比,担保一年。不收诊疗费。Butpatients take a huge risk. The drills, tweezers and pliers are neversterilized, only washed in disinfectant at the end of the day. And Surinderuses a hand held torch for light if a patient comes after dusk.但是患者要面临很大风险。这些钻头、镊子和钳子从来都没有杀菌,只是每天收摊时放在消毒剂里洗一洗。如果患者晚上来的话,他就用火把来照明。Anytooth extraction is done without anesthesia; they’re just fed some painkillersafter to cope with the pain.而且拔牙都没有麻醉的;只是在拔牙后吃点止痛药。Surinderadded: #39;We take extreme care in treating patients. We are equally skillful tohigh-end clinics. I have been doing this for 40 years and none of my patientshave ever complained.他说:“我们在治疗病人时会非常小心谨慎。在技术上我们和那些高级诊所没有区别。我干这一行已经40年了,我的病人从来没有不满。”#39;I buy the teeth from reputable companies and so they’re the real thing.#39;“这些假牙都来自信誉好的公司,所以货真价实啊。”Thereis no official ban on roadside dental clinics in India but the Indian MedicalAssociation, an elite body of qualified medical practitioners, have beendemanding a law on street practice for many years.印度政府并没有对街头牙医进行取缔,但是印度医疗协会(一个由合格医生组成的精英团体)多年来都要求立法对街头牙医进行管理。Butfor customers like Sushant Singh, 48, a labourer, the hospitals and privatedental clinics are too costly.但对于48岁的工人Sushant Singh来说,医院和私人诊所都太贵了。Hesaid: ‘I earn 125 rupees a day and can just about afford to pay 150 Rs forfixing my tooth. The government hospitals do not have dentists and privateclinics charge exorbitant fees. If there’s no street dentist where will a poorman like me go?’ he asks.他说:“我每天的工资是125卢比,我只能花费150卢比解决牙齿问题。公立医院里没有牙医,而私人诊所的费用又太高。如果没有街头牙医,像我们这样的穷人要怎么办?”他问道。 /201409/326532London (CNN) -- November is the season for poppies in Britain:Red paper flowers to remember those fallen in war.伦敦(CNN)--十一月的英国是罂粟花的季节:鲜红的纸花缅怀的是战争的亡魂。The tradition dates back to World War I; the paper blooms -- reminiscent of those that grew over the battlefields of Flanders -- are sold by thousands of volunteers, at train stations, in shops, and in offices.这个传统起源于第一次世界大战;这种纸花使人追忆起在佛兰德斯的战场上盛开的花朵。在火车站、商场、办公楼,成千的志愿者都在卖纸花。Pinned to the lapels of everyone from the man and woman in the street to news anchors and celebrities, the poppies raise money for the Royal British Legion, a charity which supports serving and former soldiers and their families.从男士到女士,从街头行人到新闻主持人和社会名流,所有人衣领上都别着这种罂粟花。卖花所得的资金都会捐给英国皇家退伍军人协会,用来帮助那些现役和退伍军人和他们的家人。Enter the Poppy Hijab: a Muslim head scarf with the iconic poppy print, launched by the Islamic Society of Britain, and sold online by British Future, with the money going to the Poppy Appeal.罂粟花头巾的诞生:大不列颠伊斯兰协会发布的穆斯林头巾,带有罂粟花印花图案,通过英国未来在网上销售,而销售所得还是交给罂粟花募捐。The hijab was launched to commemorate Khudadad Khan, the first Muslim to receive the Victoria Cross 100 years ago.这种头巾是用来纪念Khudadad Khan——一百年前第一个获得维多利亚十字勋章的穆斯林。;Of the 1.2 million soldiers, Indian soldiers that fought in World War I, 400,000 were Muslim,; Sughar Ahmed President of the Islamic Society of Britain told CNN. ;That really hits home to me. Because that#39;s part of my heritage. That#39;s part of who I am.;“在第一次世界大战中一百二十万印度士兵参战,其中有四十万是穆斯林,”大不列颠伊斯兰协会主席Sughar Ahmed告诉CNN。“这深深地影响着我。因为那是我血统的一部分,也是我自己的一部分。”But wearing a poppy is a sensitive issue for many British Muslims. In 2010, an extremist Muslim group set the paper flowers on fire in protest at British troops in Afghanistan and Iraq. Their act angered Britons and polarized opinion among many British Muslims.但是对很多英国穆斯林来说,带罂粟花头巾是一个敏感的话题。2010年,一个极端穆斯林团体点燃了纸折罂粟,抗议英国军队进军阿富汗和伊拉克。这个行为让英国人震怒,也造成很多英国穆斯林意见不一。Online, the scarf has received a mixed reception, with some taking to Twitter to mock it as a test of British loyalty.在网络上,这种头巾引起不同的声音,有人在Twitter上调侃说,这个头巾是用来评判对英国的忠诚度。I#39;m outraged at the fact that the ISB want me to wear a#poppyhijab. My hijaab is symbolic of my religious conviction not a billboard!伊斯兰协会让人带罂粟花头巾的行为让人愤怒。我的头巾是我宗教信仰的标志,不是一个广告牌!British Muslims #39;urged#39; to wear#poppyhijab. Translation: wear it to prove you#39;re properly British.英国穆斯林佩戴罂粟花头巾的潜台词就是为了明他(她)确实是个英国人。Sughar Ahmed acknowledges the criticism, but reiterates that it#39;s a choice to buy and wear the scarf, not a test.Sughar Ahmed 感谢了这些,但再次强调佩戴这个头巾只是一个选择,不是忠诚度检测。;One thing that I think is really intrinsic to this whole debate about the poppy is that we do have a choice,; she says. ;That, for me, is really quite significant -- because that#39;s what people fought for. For our freedoms. So that we could have a democracy. We could have a choice.”“我想所有关于这朵罂粟花的争论中有一个最本质的东西,那就是我们完全自由选择,”她说。“这对我来说意义重大,因为这就是人所争取的,为了我们的自由。这样我们就能拥有民主,拥有选择。”In the streets near the East London Mosque, reviews of the poppy hijab were more positive.在东伦敦清真寺附近的街道上,对罂粟花头巾的看法则积极得多。Asked if she would consider wearing the poppy hijab, one woman in a headscarf with green flowers told CNN: ;Well, I usually wear the poppy. The red one. But a headscarf? Yeah, as long as it goes with my outfit, why not?;当问到她是否考虑会带罂粟花头巾时,这名带着绿色花朵头巾的女士是这样回答的:“我一般会带罂粟花,红色的那种。至于罂粟花头巾嘛?只要能和我的衣搭配,就没有问题。” /201411/340629Speed-ing is an indispensable skill in the Internet age. We skim over articles, e-mails and tweets to try to grasp key words and the essential meaning of a certain text. Bombarded with information from our electronic devices, it would be impossible to cope if we word by word, line by line.在互联网时代,快速阅读已成为一项不可或缺的技能。我们要能在匆匆浏览过文章、邮件、或是微之后,迅速找到关键词、抓住文章大意。因为我们的手机、电脑每天都会被海量信息所“轰炸”,逐字逐句的阅读显然是不可能的。But a new trend calls on people to unplug and enjoy ing slowly, listing benefits beyond intellectual stimulation.但是,不插电、享受慢阅读正在成为一个新趋势,人们认为它有除了激发智力之外的诸多好处。A recent story from The Wall Street Journal reported on a book club in Wellington, New Zealand, where members meet in a cafe and turn off their smartphones. They sink into cozy chairs and in silence for an hour.《华尔街日报》最近的一篇文章就报道了新西兰首都惠灵顿的一家读书俱乐部,在那里,会员们会相约在咖啡馆,关掉各自的手机,倚在舒的椅子上,静静阅读一个小时。Unlike traditional book clubs, the point of the Slow Reading Club isn’t exchanging ideas about a certain book, but to get away from electronic devices and in a quiet, relaxed environment. According to the Journal, the Wellington book club is just one example of a movement initiated by book lovers who miss the old-fashioned way of ing before the Internet and smartphones.不同于传统的读书俱乐部,这家慢阅读俱乐部并不要求会员们就某一本书分享读后感,而只是让大家远离电子设备,在安静、放松的环境中阅读。据《华尔街日报》报道,这仅仅是那些怀念早前没有互联网和智能手机的时代传统阅读的书迷们发起的一项活动。Slow ers, such as The Atlantic’s Maura Kelly, say a regular ing habit sharpens the mind, improves concentration, reduces stress levels and deepens the ability to empathize.以《大西洋月刊》莫拉?凯利为代表的慢阅读者们认为,良好的阅读习惯能使心智更加敏锐,提高注意力,减缓压力,并且使人更富同情心。Some of these benefits have been backed up by science. For example, a study of 300 elderly people published by the journal Neurology last year showed that regular engagement in intellectually strenuous activities like ing slowed the rate of memory loss later in life.其中一些益处已有科学依据。比如,《神经病学》杂志去年发表的一项针对300名老人的研究显示,阅读等有规律的智力刺激能够减缓老年人的衰退。Mind er读书也“读心”Another study published last year in Science showed that ing novels helps people understand others’ mental states and beliefs, a crucial skill in building relationships.《科学》杂志去年的另一项研究则显示,阅读小说能让人更容易理解他人的心理和观点,而这也是人际关系中最重要的能力。Yet technology has made us less attentive ers. Screens have changed our ing patterns from the linear, left-to-right sequence to a wild skimming and skipping pattern as we hunt for important words and information. Reading text punctuated with links leads to weaker comprehension than ing plain text. The Internet may have made us stupider, says Patrick Kingsley from The Guardian. Because of the Internet, he says, we have become very good at collecting a wide range of factual tidbits, but we are also gradually forgetting how to sit back, contemplate, and relate all these facts to each other.但是,科技却让我们在阅读时无法集中精力。电子设备的屏幕让我们由从左向右的线性阅读习惯,变成寻找关键词和重要信息的疯狂略读模式。而与阅读纯文本相比,阅读带插有各种链接的文章降低了我们的理解力。《卫报》记者帕特里克?金斯利就说,互联网也许让我们变笨了;因为互联网,我们更擅长收集精华信息,却很难坐下来一一品读,并将其梳理和关联起来。Slow ing means a return to an uninterrupted, linear pattern, in a quiet environment free of distractions. Aim for 30 minutes a day, advises Kelly from The Atlantic. “You can squeeze in that half hour pretty easily if only during your free moments – whenever you find yourself automatically firing up your laptop to check your favorite site, or scanning Twitter for something to pass the time–you pick up a meaningful work of literature,” Kelly said. “Reach for your e-er, if you like. Kindles make books like War and Peace less heavy, not less substantive, and also ensure you’ll never lose your place.”慢阅读意味着回到连贯的线性阅读模式中,在安静、免打扰的环境中享受阅读。《大西洋月刊》的凯利就建议大家以“每天读半小时”为目标,“从赋闲的时间里挤出这半个小时是十分容易的。把你为了消磨时光而不自觉打开笔记本上自己喜欢的网站或是刷推特的时间用来读本有意义的书。如果你喜欢读电子书,那么你可以捧起Kindle——它更节省空间,让《战争与和平》变得更轻薄,内容却不减少一丝一毫。 /201411/339693

Nestle, the world#39;s biggest food company, has removed beef pasta meals from shelves in Italy and Spain after tests revealed traces of horse DNA above 1 percent. Swiss-based Nestle, which just last week said products under its labels were not affected by the escalating horsemeat scandal, said it had informed the authorities, according to a report on the Financial Times website. Nestle was not immediately available for comment. The discovery of horsemeat in products labelled as beef began in Ireland last month and has rapidly sp across Europe, resulting in several product withdrawals and government investigations into the long and complex food-processing chains that criss-cross the continent.据英国《每日电讯》报道,世界上最大的食品公司雀巢(Nestle)在一些检测中发现牛肉食品里含有1%以上的马肉DNA后,将其牛肉面食从意大利和西班牙的食品架上撤出。Nestle withdrew two chilled pasta products, Buitoni Beef Ravioli and Beef Tortellini, in Italy and Spain, the FT said. Lasagnes a la Bolognaise Gourmandes, a frozen product for catering businesses produced in France, will also be withdrawn.雀巢在意大利和西班牙撤回两种冷冻面制食品,分别为雀巢牛肉馄饨和牛肉水饺。 /201312/269583

Every year, the World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap Report takes stock of where the world stands on gender parity. The newest survey covers 136 economies, most of which have been included since the report’s first edition eight years ago. The report measures the gaps between women and men on education, health, economic participation and political empowerment. Countries are compared and ranked on gender gaps in these four areas and on an index of overall gender parity. 世界经济论坛(WEF)每年都会发布《全球性别差距报告》(Global Gender Gap Report),评估世界范围内的性别平等状况。最新的调查覆盖了136个经济体,其中大部分经济体从八年前首份报告发布起,就一直在覆盖范围内。报告评估了女性和男性在教育、健康、经济参与以及政治赋权方面的差距。各国根据这四个领域的性别差距获得排名,还分别获得一个综合性的性别平等指数。 The good news is that gender gaps, while still wide in many countries, are narrowing in most parts of the world. More than 80 per cent of the countries covered have improved. The gaps in education and health have nearly disappeared in many nations. The bad news is that large gaps in economic and political participation persist even in many developed nations. At the current pace of change, women will not approach full parity on these indicators for another 80 years. That is a huge squandered opportunity not only for several generations of women but for their families, their societies and the world. 好消息是,虽然在很多国家两性差距依然很大,但在世界大多数地区,这一差距正在缩小。接受调查的国家中,超过80%的国家成功缩小了性别差距。在很多国家,教育和健康方面的差距已接近消失。坏消息是,即使在很多发达国家,两性在经济和政治参与方面还存在很大差距。按照当前的变化速度,女性要到80年后才能在这些方面获得完全的平等。这不仅对几代女性来说是一个被浪费的巨大机遇,对于她们的家庭、社会以及整个世界来说都是如此。 To be sure, gender gaps vary enormously among nations. We find that the highest ranking country in the world – Iceland – has closed over 87 per cent of its overall gender gap. By contrast, the lowest ranking country – Yemen – has closed only 51 per cent of this gap. 应当指出的是,各国之间性别差距各不相同。我们发现,在排名最高的国家——冰岛,两性的整体差距已经弥合了87%。与此形成对比的是,在排名最低的也门,性别差距只缩小了51%。 Education is a success story for most of the world and progress is not limited to wealthy countries. Globally, we estimate that 93 per cent of the gender gap in schooling has now disappeared. In 12 countries, including Lesotho and the ed Arab Emirates, the literacy rate for women is actually higher than that for men. In 35 countries, girls are more likely than boys to be enrolled in primary education. In 68 countries, more girls than boys are enrolled in secondary education. At the university level, 69 countries have more women enrolled than men. 对于世界上大部分地区来说,两性差距在教育方面的改善比较显著,且进步不仅局限于富裕国家。全球来看,调查结果显示,在教育方面的两性差距已消失了93%。在莱索托和阿联酋等12个国家,女性识字率实际上还高于男性。35个国家的女孩接受小学教育的可能性要大于男孩。68个国家接受中学教育的女孩要多于男孩。在大学教育层面,69个国家中女生人数多于男生。 The gender gap on health is even smaller. There are some notable exceptions, of course. In China, India, Vietnam and Azerbaijan, for example, female-male birth ratios are still abnormally low. In other nations, such as Bangladesh, Pakistan, Botswana and Qatar, the healthy life expectancy of women is lower than that of men. But the global trend is in the opposite direction. We estimate that 96 per cent of the global gender gap in health has disappeared. 健康方面的性别差距则更小,当然也有一些明显的例外。比如在中国、印度、越南以及阿塞拜疆,女婴/男婴出生比仍低得反常。在其他国家,比如孟加拉国、巴基斯坦、茨瓦纳和卡塔尔,女性的平均健康期望寿命要低于男性。但全球趋势与之相反。调查显示,在健康方面,96%的全球性别差距已经消失。 This is dramatic progress, but it is only part of the story. The gender gaps in economic participation and political power remain much wider – even in many wealthy nations. These gaps also differ significantly among countries. Some of the highest female labour-participation rates are in Malawi, Mozambique and Burundi, where women make up a larger portion of the workforce than men. By contrast, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Syria have some of the world’s lowest female labour force participation rates. No country has reached parity on wages. While women hold more than 50 per cent of top management roles in the private and public sector in Jamaica and the Philippines, they make up less than 3 per cent of these positions in Pakistan and Yemen. In the US, women hold 43 per cent of these roles. 这是长足的进步,但还不是全貌。在经济参与和政治权力方面,两性差距依然很大,就连很多富裕国家也是如此。这些差距在不同国家也各有不同。女性参与工作比率最高的国家,包括马拉维、莫桑比克以及布隆迪,在这些国家中女性在劳动力队伍中所占比重高于男性。而巴基斯坦、沙特阿拉伯、阿尔及利亚以及叙利亚的女性参与工作比率为全球最低。没有一个国家实现了同工同酬。虽然牙买加和菲律宾的私人和公共部门顶级管理层中,女性占50%以上,但在巴基斯坦和也门这一比例不到3%。在美国,女性在这些岗位的比重为43%。 With rare exceptions, politics is an area where women fare poorly around the world. No country has reached parity on women in parliament except Rwanda, which is not covered in our report because we lacked other data. In Yemen and Qatar, there are no women in the equivalent of their parliamentary bodies. Norway has the highest share of ministerial posts held by women – 53 per cent – but 10 countries have no female ministers at all. No country has reached parity on the number of years with a female head of government. India ranks first on that indicator, whereas 65 per cent of countries have never had a female head of government over the past 50 years. 除了极少数例外,政治方面世界各地女性的地位都很低。除了卢旺达,没有哪个国家实现了女性在议会议席上的平等(因为缺乏其他数据,卢旺达并不包含在我们的报告中)。在也门和卡塔尔,议会中没有女性。挪威女性部长比例最高(53%),但有10个国家根本就没有女性部长级官员。没有哪个国家女性政府首脑的任期与男性实现平等。在这点上印度排名第一,而65%的国家在过去50年里根本就没有女性政府首脑。 Based on the changes we have tracked over much of the past decade, we estimate that the world will not reach full gender parity for another 80 years. And that projection may well be too optimistic, given that the countries that do not supply data on gender parity may well be those with the worst imbalances. 基于过去十年大部分时间里追踪到的变化,报告预测,世界要到80年后才能实现完全的性别平等。考虑到没有提供性别平等数据的国家可能就是性别最失衡的国家,这一预期可能过于乐观了。 There is nothing natural about the pace of change – it depends on the decisions of individuals, governments and businesses to prioritise long-term returns from gender equality over short-term convenience. So who is winning the race to equality? 变化的步伐并不是自然而然的,它取决于个人、政府以及公司更加注重性别平等所带来的长期回报,而不是短期便利。那么在性别平等的竞赛中谁是赢家呢? We find four distinct groups. The first group includes countries that have had an overall good performance since 2006 (above the median) and are moving ahead rapidly. This group includes Belgium, Switzerland, Lesotho, Luxembourg and Iceland. Iceland is not only aly the top-ranked country, but it also has had the fastest rate of progress over the past eight years in closing the gender gap. These countries have essentially closed their health and education gaps aly and they are moving ahead rapidly on integrating more women into the economy and politics. 我们发现被调查国家分成四个特征鲜明的类别。第一类包括2006年以来整体表现比较好(中等以上)、而且进步较快的国家。这一类包括比利时、瑞士、莱索托、卢森堡以及冰岛。冰岛不仅已经是排名最高的国家,也是过去八年中消除性别差距进步最快的国家。这些国家基本上消除了在健康和教育方面的差距,也在快速让更多女性融入经济和政治领域。 A second group includes countries that performed above the median in 2006 but have since stalled or even reversed their progress. These countries include El Salvador, Sri Lanka, Botswana, Tanzania and Moldova. In this group, the reversals stem mainly from losses to previous gains in political empowerment. 第二类包括2006年时表现中等以上、但自此之后就停滞甚至倒退的国家,包括萨尔瓦多、斯里兰卡、茨瓦纳、坦桑尼亚以及尔多瓦。倒退主要是因为此前在政治赋权方面取得的进展又丢失了。 The third group is composed of countries that were below the median in 2006 – and still are – but have made rapid progress since then. Cameroon, Saudi Arabia, Ecuador, Bolivia and Nicaragua fall in this category. In some of these countries, such as Saudi Arabia, women are a majority of university graduates but only a small minority of the labour force and an even smaller share of leadership positions. 第三类包括2006年时处于中等水平以下(现在仍是)、但自那以来进步较快的国家。这一类包括喀麦隆、沙特、厄瓜多尔、玻利维亚和尼加拉瓜。在其中一些国家,比如沙特,女性占大学毕业生的大多数,但只占劳动力的一小部分,在领导层中的比例就更低。 Finally, a fourth group includes countries that were below the median in 2006 and are falling further behind. This group includes Albania, Mali, Algeria, Kuwait and Zambia. In most of these countries, basics such as education still need improvement. In others, such as Kuwait, the gender gap in economic participation has actually increased, despite a decline in the gender gap in education. 最后就是第四个类别,包括2006年时处于中等以下水平,并且仍在后退的国家。这类国家包括阿尔巴尼亚、马里、阿尔及利亚、科威特以及赞比亚。在其中大多数国家,教育等基础层面依然需要改善。诸如科威特等其他国家在经济参与方面的性别差距实际上有所扩大,尽管在教育方面的性别差距有所缩小。 For the world as a whole, the report shows that 96 per cent of health gaps, 93 per cent of education gaps, 60 per cent of economic gaps and only 21 per cent of political gaps have been closed. Globally, women are almost as healthy and as educated as men. Unfortunately, women are still far from full integration and parity in economic and political decision-making. This is a waste of talent and a missed opportunity to build prosperity. A wide array of studies confirms that countries with large gender gaps tend to be less competitive. 从世界整体来看,报告显示,96%的健康差距,93%的教育差距,60%的经济差距以及21%的政治差距已经消除。全球来看,女性与男性的健康程度和受教育程度几乎一样。不幸的是,在经济和政治决策方面女性还远未实现完全的融合和平等。这在创造繁荣的过程中是一种人才的浪费和错失的机会。大量研究实,性别差距较大的国家往往竞争力也差一些。 While correlation does not prove causality, the reasoning is quite simple. Empowering women means a more efficient use of a nation’s human capital endowment and therefore over time a nation’s competitiveness depends, among other things, on whether and how it educates and utilises its female talent. Similarly, at the company level the best decision-making and innovation occurs when the female talent pool is fully engaged and integrated. 虽然相关性未必就是因果关系,但推理是非常简单的。妇女赋权意味着对一个国家人力资本更加高效率的利用,因此随着时间的转移,决定一个国家的竞争力的,除了别的因素之外,还有如何教育并利用女性人才。类似地,在公司层面,当女性人才得到充分利用并融合时,就会有最佳的决策和创新。 The fact that women make up more than half of university graduates in many developed countries and in many emerging markets, has transformed the global talent pool. Add to that the growing purchasing power of women and it is clear why governments and companies must take account of the rising economic clout of women as consumers, clients, workers and decision makers. The governments and companies that are quickest to recognise these trends will earn high dividends on their investments in gender parity. In today’s world, women’s rights are not only human rights – they are a key determinant of economic performance and winning the race to prosperity has become synonymous with winning the race to equality. 很多发达国家和新兴经济体大学毕业生中女性占一半以上,这个事实转变了全球的人才储备。再加上女性购买力的增加,显然,政府和企业必须考虑女性作为消费者、客户以及决策者不断强化的经济力量。最快意识到这些趋势的政府和企业,将会从性别平等投资获得高回报。在今天的世界,女性权利不仅是人权,也是一个关键的经济表现要素。谁赢得了性别平等的竞赛,谁就赢得了繁荣竞赛。 Laura D. Tyson is a professor of management and director of the Institute for Business and Social Impact at the University of California’s Berkeley-Haas School of Business. Saadia Zahidi is head of the World Economic Forum’s Gender Parity and Human Capital programmes. 劳拉#8226;D#8226;泰森(Laura D. Tyson)是美国加州大学伯克利分校(University of California’s Berkeley)哈斯商学院(Haas School of Business)管理学教授、商业和社会影响研究所(Institute for Business and Social Impact)所长。萨阿迪亚#8226;扎希迪(Saadia Zahidi)是世界经济论坛性别平等和人力资本项目主管。 /201311/266490If I ask you what constitutes ;bad; eating, the kind that leads to obesity and a variety of connected diseases, you#39;re likely to answer, ;Salt, fat and sugar.; This trilogy of evil has been drilled into us for decades, yet that#39;s not an adequate answer.如果我问你,什么构成“不良”饮食,你可能会回答那些导致肥胖和各种相关疾病的东西,“盐、脂肪和糖。”这个邪恶三剑客已经困扰我们几十年了。但这个并不充分。We don#39;t know everything about the dietary links to chronic disease, but the best-qualified people argue that real food is more likely to promote health and less likely to cause disease than hyperprocessed food. And we can further refine that message: Minimally processed plants should dominate our diets. (This isn#39;t just me saying this; the Institute of Medicine and the Department of Agriculture agree.)我们对饮食和慢性病的关系还有很多不了解的地方,但是在这个问题上最有发言权的人说,相比经过高度加工的食品,真正的食物对健康更有利,不容易导致疾病。我们还可以进一步提炼这一要旨:我们的饮食主体,应该是经过极少加工的植物。(这话不只是我在说;美国国家医学院[Institute of Medicine]和农业部[Department of Agriculture]都是认同的。)And yet we#39;re in the middle of a public health emergency that isn#39;t being taken seriously enough. We should make it a national priority to create two new programs, a research program to determine precisely what causes diet-related chronic illnesses (on top of the list is ;Just how bad is sugar?;), and a program that will get this single, simple message across: Eat Real Food.然而我们正在面临一个公共健康的紧急状况,并且没有给予足够的重视。我们应该设立两个新项目,这应该是国家的头等大事,一个是研究项目,要准确地判定是什么导致饮食相关的慢性病(其中最首要的问题是,“糖到底有多糟糕?”),另一个项目是要传播一个简单的讯息:吃真正的食物。Real food solves the salt/fat/sugar problem. Yes, excess salt may cause or exacerbate high blood pressure, and lowering sodium intake in people with high blood pressure helps. But salt is only one of several risk factors in developing high blood pressure, and those who eat a diverse diet and few processed foods — which supply more than 80 percent of the sodium in typical American diets — need not worry about salt intake.真正的食物能解决盐/脂肪/糖的问题。是的,过多的盐会导致或加剧高血压,减少钠的摄入对高血压人群是有益的。但盐只是导致高血压的几个风险因素之一,而且那些饮食种类多样、很少食用加工食品的人,不需要操心盐摄入的问题——典型的美式日常饮食中,80%以上的钠来自加工食品。;Fat; is a loaded word and a complicated topic, and the jury is still out. Most naturally occurring fats are probably essential, but too much of some fats — and, again, it may be the industrially produced fats used in hyperprocessed foods — seems harmful. Eat real food and your fat intake will probably be fine.“脂肪”是个含义丰富的词,也是个错综复杂的话题,至今仍悬而未决。多数自然产生的脂肪可能都是必要的,但某些类脂肪——同样,可能是那些高度加工的食品中使用的工业方法生产的脂肪——过多似乎是有害的。吃真正的食物,你的脂肪摄入大概就不会有问题。;Sugar; has come to represent (or it should) the entire group of processed, nutritionally worthless caloric sweeteners, including table sugar, high fructose corn syrup and so-called healthy alternatives like agave syrup, brown rice syrup, reduced fruit juice and a dozen others.“糖”已经成为(或者说应该成为)整整一类经加工、无营养、高热量的甜味料的代称,包括食糖、高果糖玉米糖浆以及一些号称健康的代糖,比如龙舌兰糖浆、糙米糖浆、浓缩果汁等等。All appear to be damaging because they#39;re added sugars, as opposed to naturally occurring ones, like those in actual fruit, which are not problematic. And although added fructose may be more harmful than the others, it could also be that those highly refined carbohydrates that our bodies rapidly break down to sugar — white b, for example — are equally unhealthy. Again: These are hyperprocessed foods.这些似乎都是有害的,因为它们是添加糖,和天然的糖不一样,比如,在真正的水果中的糖是没问题的。添加果糖可能比其他形式更糟,但是精制碳水化合物在体内可以迅速分解为糖,比如白面包,可能对健康一样没好处。同样:这些都是高度加工食品。In sum: Sugar is not the enemy, or not the only enemy. The enemy is hyperprocessed food, including sugar.总而言之:糖不是敌人,或者说不是唯一的敌人。真正的敌人是高度加工食品,包括糖。In the ed States — the world#39;s most obese country — the most recent number for the annual cost of obesity is close to 0 billion. (Obesity-related costs are incalculable but could easily exceed trillion annually. Wanna balance the budget? Eat real food.) The amount the National Institutes of Health expends for obesity-related research is less than billion annually, and there is no single large, convincing study (and no small study will do) that proposes to solve the underlying causes of obesity. If the solution were as simple as ;salt, fat, sugar; or the increasingly absurd-sounding ;calories in, calories out,; surely we#39;d have made some progress by now.在美国这个全球最肥胖的国度里,最新数据显示每年在肥胖问题上的花销达到2000亿美元(约合1.2万亿元人民币)。(肥胖相关的出无法计算,但每年超过1万亿美元应该不成问题。想财政收平衡?吃真正的食物。)国家医学院每年用在肥胖相关研究上的经费不到10亿美元,而且没有一个有说力的大型研究(在这个问题上小型研究是没用的)能提出解决肥胖潜在成因的办法。如果解决方案就“盐、脂肪、糖”这么简单,或者是那个越听越荒唐的“卡路里进,卡路里出”(calories in, calories out),我们现在应该已经有一些进展才对。We know that eating real food is a general solution, but a large part of our dietary problems might stem from something as simple as the skyrocketing and almost unavoidable consumption of caloric sweeteners and/or hyperprocessed carbs, which are in 80 percent of our food products.我们知道,吃真正的食物只是一个笼统的解决办法,但我们的饮食问题,可能在相当程度上是源于高热量甜味料和(或)高度加工碳水化合物的摄入,而这两者在我们的饮食中几乎是不可避免的,且摄入量在飞涨。在我们的食物产品中,有80%含有这些东西。Or it could be those factors in tandem with others, like the degradation of our internal networks of bacteria, which in turn could be caused by the overuse of antibiotics or other environmental issues. Or it could be even more complex.或者也有可能是和其他因素共同作用的,比如我们体内的细菌网络在退化,而这个问题本身可能是过量使用抗生素或其他环境问题造成的。或者可能比这还要更复杂。The point is we need to know for certain, because until we have an actual smoking gun, it#39;s difficult to persuade lawmakers to enact needed policies. (Smoking gun studies are difficult in the diet world, but throwing up our hands in the face of complexity serves the interests of processed-food pushers.) Look no further than the example of tobacco.关键在于我们需要有确凿的了解,因为只有攥着如山的铁,才有可能说议员们去实施必要的政策。(在饮食的领域,寻找铁是很困难的,但是如果我们被这些困难吓倒,那就是正中加工食品贩子下怀了。)这方面只需要看看烟草的前车之鉴。Meanwhile, if we had to pick one target in the interim, caloric sweeteners are unquestionably it; they#39;re well correlated with weight gain (and their reduction equally well correlated with weight loss), Type 2 diabetes and many other problems. How to limit the intake of sugar? A soda tax is a start, proper labeling would be helpful, and — quite possibly most important, because it#39;s going to take us a generation or two to get out of this mess — restrictions on marketing sweet ;food; to children.与此同时,如果我们在此期间一定要找一个目标,毫无疑问应该是高热量甜味剂;它们跟体重增加、II型糖尿病等等问题是有明显关联的(而减少摄入也明显和体重下降有关)。如何限制糖的摄入?首先可以征收汽水税,进行妥善标注也是有帮助的,此外还有限制向儿童推销甜的“食物”——这很有可能是最重要的,因为要走出这片泥沼需要一代甚至两代人的时间。There#39;s no reason to delay action on those kinds of moves. But let#39;s get the science straight so that firm, convincing, sound, evenhanded recommendations can be made based on the best possible evidence. And meanwhile, let#39;s also get the simple message straight: It#39;s ;Eat Real Food.;这些举措都没有理由再拖了。但是让我们先从科学入手,找到尽可能充分的据,得出坚实、可信、明智、公正的建议。同时,我们还要明确传达一个要旨,那就是“吃真正的食物”。 /201409/326499

SEPTEMBER MARKS the end of summer#39;s last stand as heat and humidity give way to cooler skies, balmy breezes and autumn#39;s palette of vibrant reds and golds. Make the most of the season with fall getaways that are equally rich in color and culture.9月标志着夏天最后一刻的终结,酷热和潮湿终于让道于凉爽的苍穹、和煦的微风以及秋季调色板上活力四射的红色与金色。。把握住秋天的出游时光。在这个季节,不论是赏景之行,还是文化之旅,两者都将同样丰富多。Art Attack艺术之旅SWITZERLAND // Art Basel may be long over, but this Swiss city#39;s cultural scene hums well into fall thanks to its museums. The Kunstmuseum houses Europe#39;s oldest public art collection, while the Museum für Gegenwartskunst specializes in works from 1960 onward. Best of all is the Renzo Piano-designed Beyeler Foundation, whose Maurizio Cattelan exhibition makes way next month for Thomas Schutte#39;s bronze busts.瑞士 // 巴塞尔艺术览会(Art Basel)可能已落幕许久,但由于巴塞尔坐拥众多物馆,这座瑞士城市的文化景观得以很好地延展至秋季。巴塞尔美术馆(Kunstmuseum)陈列着欧洲最古老的大众艺术收藏品,而当代艺术馆(Museum fur Gegenwartskunst)则专门展出1960年以后的作品。在诸多物馆中最出色的一家是由伦佐·皮亚诺(Renzo Piano)操刀设计的贝耶勒基金会物馆(Beyeler Foundation),现在这里正在展出毛里齐奥·卡泰兰(Maurizio Cattelan)的作品,而下个月则将进行托马斯·舒特(Thomas Schutte)的青铜半身雕像展。ITALY // November marks the end of the 55th Venice Art Biennale--which means there#39;s still plenty of time to enjoy La Serenissima at its culture-rich best. Park yourself at the newly opened Aman Canal Grande, a restored and rare palazzo monumentale near the Rialto Bridge (amanresorts.com). Also close are the Biennale#39;s best bets: from Ai Weiwei in the German Pavilion to a Ravel-inspired installation by Anri Sala in the French Pavilion.意大利 //第五十五届双年展(Venice Art Biennale)将于11月落下帷幕,这意味着你仍有许多时间可以在其文化最丰盛的双年展上欣赏水城(La Serenissima) 。将你自己置身于新开业的安缦度假村(Aman Canal Grande)内。该度假村坐落在里阿尔托桥(Rialto Bridge)附近,由一处罕见的宫殿翻修建成。靠近该度假村的还有双年展最棒的部分展出:从德国馆的艾未未到法国馆的安利·萨拉(Anri Sala),后者的录影装置作品是从拉威尔(Ravel)的音乐中汲取灵感制成的。FRANCE // This year has been Marseille#39;s moment to shine. In 2013#39;s European Capital of Culture, a new InterContinental Hotel now overlooks the historic port, where you can find the new MuCEM and Regards de Provence museums. Marseille#39;s food scene has also been updated. Try pan-Mediterranean comfort classics at Café Populaire (110 Rue Paradis; +33 4 91 02 53 96) or Philippe Moreno#39;s fish-focused restaurant at the MuCEM.法国 // 今年是马赛(Marseille)的闪光时刻。在此“2013欧洲文化之都”(2013#39;s European Capital of Culture),一家全新的洲际酒店(Intercontinental Hotel)现今正俯瞰着这个历史悠久的港口。在马赛,你能寻访到欧洲及地中海文化物馆(MUCEM)和普罗旺斯物馆(Regards de Provence)。这里的美食城也已更新换代。去Populaire咖啡厅(地址:110 Rue Paradis; 电话:+33 4 91 02 53 96)试一试泛地中海的经典菜式,或者去欧洲及地中海文化物馆菲利普·莫雷诺(Philippe Moreno)专注做鱼的餐厅尝一尝。Fall Foliage秋之落叶FRANCE // The vineyards of Limoux in the Languedoc may be best known for their sparkling wines, but they also offer one of Southern Europe#39;s most indulgent opportunities to enjoy autumnal colors. Here, as workers harvest Mauzac and Chardonnay grapes, the vine leaves transform into endless fields of orange and gold. Taste Limoux bubbly directly at its source at J. Laurens, which produces some of the area#39;s top vintages. jlaurens.fr法国 // 朗格多克(Languedoc)利穆(Limoux)葡萄园区最著名的或许是他们的起泡酒,但他们还提供南欧观赏秋景的绝佳机会之一。置身此地,在工作人员采摘莫扎克(Mauzac)和霞多丽(Chardonnay)葡萄的时节,这里的葡萄藤蔓就会变成无边无际的橙色和金色。你可直接在原产地J.劳伦斯(J. Laurens)品一品起泡酒,这里出产这一片区的部分顶级佳酿。(网址:jlaurens.fr )GERMANY // Fall colors arrive in Bavaria just in time for Oktoberfest (Sept. 21-Oct. 6). Take a break from all that lager with a visit to nearby Neuschwanstein Castle, the fairytale-like hilltop palace built by King Ludwig II in 1892 ( neuschwanstein.de ). Two hours from Munich, the castle is tucked deep in forests whose leaves seem ablaze with color. Horses and buggies can ferry you to the site, but the low-impact trail provides the most flora-filled fun.德国 // 在巴伐利亚州,秋色翩然而至,又正好赶上慕尼黑啤酒节(9月21日至10月6日)。从啤酒节中抽空游览附近的新天鹅堡(Neuschwanstein Castle),它是一座耸立于山顶、童话般的宫殿,由国王路德维希二世(King Ludwig II) 于1892年建成(网址:neuschwanstein.de)。从慕尼黑出发前往此处需两小时车程。新天鹅堡藏在森林深处,这里的树叶看起来色鲜明闪亮。马车能将你载至目的地,但这段行进省力的小径却植被茂密,提供许多生趣。NEW YORK // The Catskills may only be 90 minutes from Manhattan, but this semi-mountainous region is alive with color in the fall. Revel amid the changing leaves in the tiny town of Phoenicia, where a quartet of entrepreneurial Brooklynites recently debuted The Graham amp; Co., a hotel with 20 rustic rooms, an al fresco pool and ultra-informed staffers with full foliage knowledge. thegrahamandco.com纽约 // 凯茨奇尔(Catskills)离曼哈顿(Manhattan)可能只有90分钟车程,但这片半山区在秋季却因色而生机盎然。在腓尼基(Phoenicia)小镇,狂欢在叶色变幻中上演。在这里,四位活动主办者布鲁克林人最近在Graham amp;Co.酒店登台演出。这家酒店拥有20间乡村风格的房间,一座露天泳池以及诸多消息超灵通、植物知识渊的员工。(网址:thegrahamandco.com) /201310/260653Going out for dinner on Valentine’s Day can cost you more than you are y to part with, as the is sure to be overpriced. But now, staying home for a romantic dinner can cost you much more, especially if the cook is a Michelin-starred chef. VeryFirstTo.com, a British retail luxury site is offering the services of top chefs, who will cook a no expense-spared romantic dinner.The cost of the dinner is said to be ,300.又到情人节,这是许多餐馆一年中最忙碌的时段之一。餐馆肯定又照例推出“浪漫香煎小牛仔骨”这样的菜品。在家吃一顿浪漫晚餐和花10万美元雇一个米其林星级大厨来你家做饭,你会怎么选择?英国奢侈品零售网站VeryFirstTo对外发布了史上最昂贵的情人节晚餐,由英国米其林星级饭店颠勺儿的厨师Adam Simmonds亲自上门为情侣们烹饪,八道菜品的价格需要6.1万欧元,即99478.80美元。究竟是什么菜能要价这么高?来看一看这八道菜是什么:Almus白鱼子酱(4891.80美元)、春季白松露(1630.60美元)、食用金叶(3261.20美元)、食用银叶(1304.48美元)以及紫水晶竹盐(3261.20美元)。The site has teamed up with chef Adam Simmonds and GreatBritishChefs.com to prepare this feat.The dinner will include Almus white caviar, spring white truffle, and gold leaf and silver leaf to name a few. The dinner will be accompanied by an expensive selection of wine which included a ,720.20 bottle of La Romanee-Conti, Domaine de la Romanee-Conti, according to reports. The meal will end with vanilla and smoked chocolate with kopi luwak ice cream.有上面几道大菜,195.67美元的鹅肝酱和326.12美元的神户牛肉便宜得如同儿戏。还没有提到酒单,酒品包含一瓶27720.20美元的曼尼·康帝,由罗曼尼·康帝酒庄出品。对了,还有生蚝(9783.63美元),吞蚝前请记得将其中的南海珍珠取出。 /201402/275664

Germany has a habit of winning the World Cup at symbolic moments. Victory in 1954 – captured in the film, The Miracle of Bern – allowed Germans a moment of pride and redemption after defeat and disgrace in 1945. A second victory in 1974 went to a West Germany whose “economic miracle” had, by then, allowed it to regain its status as one of the world’s most advanced nations. Victory in 1990, just months after the fall of the Berlin Wall, caught the joy and potential of a soon-to-be united Germany.德国有在具有象征意义的时刻赢得世界杯的惯例。1954年世界杯夺冠——被拍成电影《伯尔尼的奇迹》(The Miracle of Bern)——让德国人在1945年的战败和耻辱之后迎来了自豪和救赎的时刻。1974年西德赢得第二次世界杯冠军,当时该国创造的“经济奇迹”已让其重新成为全球最发达的国家之一。在“柏林墙”倒塌仅仅数月之后的1990年世界杯上夺冠,则正好赶上了德国即将统一带来的喜悦和光明前景。Now, in 2014, Germany has won the World Cup again – and once more at a symbolic moment. The past five years have seen Germany re-emerge as the leading political power in Europe. Britain and France may have the nuclear weapons and permanent membership of the UN Security Council. But the euro-crisis has seen Germany emerge as the undisputed leader of the EU.现在到了2014年,德国队在巴西世界杯上再次夺冠,而且又是在具有象征意义的时刻。德国在过去5年再次成为欧洲的领导性政治力量。没错,英国和法国拥有核武器,而且还是联合国安理会(UN Security Council)常任理事国。但在欧元危中,德国已经成为毫无争议的欧盟(EU)领袖。Even calling Germany the “dominant power” in Europe would have sounded unsettling a few years ago. But modern Germany has pulled off the unusual trick of being simultaneously powerful and popular. A B poll, carried out in 21 nations last year, suggested that Germany was the most admired country in the world.即便在几年前,将德国称为欧洲的“主导力量”听起来还令人不安。但现代德国已经掌握了在强大的同时受人欢迎的非凡技巧。英国广播公司(B)去年在21个国家开展的民调显示,德国是全球最受钦佩的国家。While Paris feels like a beautiful museum, Rome is crumbling and London is overpriced and overcrowded, Berlin has emerged as a cool city, full of art galleries, clubs and exciting modern architecture from the Reichstag to Potsdamer Platz. It is also a city in which the young can still afford to live.巴黎像是一个漂亮的物馆,罗马正分崩离析,伦敦生活成本过高而且人口也过多,而柏林已成为一个很酷的城市,到处是艺术画廊、俱乐部,以及从国会大厦(Reichstag)到波茨坦广场(Potsdamer Platz)等令人兴奋的现代建筑。柏林还是一座年轻人仍能住得起的城市。Once again, the German football team captures the mood of the moment. The sides of 1954 and 1974 were resented by some fans for defeating more stylish opponents – in the shape of Hungary and the Netherlands. The victorious German teams of 1974 and 1990 were praised for being “efficient” or “hard-working” – and lampooned for their ludicrous hairstyles. By contrast, the current German side is applauded for its flair and its sportsmanship. It is also the most multicultural team to represent the country in a World Cup final, reflecting the increasing openness of German society. Yet some of the old virtues remain. At its best, the German team does feel like a well-designed machine, with all the parts working together in harmony. It seemed fitting that Mario G#246;tze, the scorer of the winning goal in Rio, is the son of a technology professor – and one of the two players in the team born in a united Germany.德国国家足球队再次抓住了这一时刻的情绪。在1954年和1974年的世界杯上,德国队因击败了匈牙利和荷兰这两个更为时尚的对手而遭到一些球迷的憎恨。在1974年和1990年世界杯上夺冠的德国国家队因“高效”或“勤奋”而受到赞扬,因滑稽可笑的发型而遭受奚落。相比之下,如今的德国国家队因才华和运动员精神而备受赞誉。它也是杀入世界杯决赛的最具多元文化的德国球队,反映出德国社会日益开放。然而,德国队依然保留了一些古老的美德。处于最佳状态的德国队就像是一部精心设计的机器,所有零件都协调地运行。在里约热内卢攻入致胜一球的马里奥#8226;格策(Mario G#246;tze)是一位技术教授的儿子,也是在德国统一之后出生的两名球员之一,这看上去也恰好合适。But if all that sounds too good to be true, it probably is. Germany is undoubtedly going through a golden moment – on and off the football-field – but there are reasons for fearing that it will prove all too momentary. Political leadership in Europe involves making choices – and those choices will inevitably be unpopular in many quarters. To paraphrase Trotsky on war, while modern Germans may not be interested in power, power is interested in them. So while the country has a positive image in the world at large, where its power is not yet felt, the euro-crisis has seen Germany’s image take a battering in its own European backyard. The Merkel government’s insistence on economic austerity in southern Europe has revived old images of arrogant, unfeeling Germans. Asked which country they least wanted to see lift the World Cup, the Portuguese, Spanish, Greeks, Dutch and English all named Germany in their top two least favourite nations.但如果这一切听起来好得令人难以置信,那么它很有可能就是虚幻的。德国无疑正在经历黄金时刻(无论是在足球场上还是其他方面),但人们有理由担心,这将是昙花一现。在欧洲政治中居于领导地位意味着要做出选择,而那些选择将不可避免地在许多地方不受欢迎。套用托洛茨基(Trotsky)关于战争的名言来说,尽管现代德国人可能对权力不感兴趣,但权力对他们感兴趣。因此,尽管德国总体上在世界上拥有正面的形象——他们目前还未感觉到德国的影响力——但在欧元危机中,德国的形象在自家的欧洲后院遭受重创。默克尔政府坚持要求欧洲南部国家实行经济紧缩,唤起人们对德国人傲慢和无情的印象。在被问及最不希望哪个国家捧起大力神杯时,葡萄牙人、西班牙人、希腊人、荷兰人和英格兰人全都把德国列为最不希望的两个国家之一。When it comes to Germany’s global role, the country itself remains deeply divided. The row over US spying on Germany has revived a latent anti-Americanism that was very visible during the Bush years. Indignation over snooping is understandable, but – among the German public – it seems to have spilled over into a refusal to choose between Russia and the west. A recent opinion poll, taken before the latest spying row, showed that more Germans think their country should maintain a policy of equal distance between Russia and the western alliance than opt for a pro-west strategy. That attitude alarms Germany’s Atlanticist foreign-policy establishment, as well as its eastern neighbours. German diplomats are worried that their government’s views are out-of-tune with the public they are meant to represent.就德国在全球的角色来说,德国自身也存在严重的分歧。围绕美国对德国开展间谍活动的争吵,唤醒了一直潜伏的反美主义——这种反美主义在布什政府期间表现得非常明显。因遭受窃听而愤怒是可以理解的,但在德国公众当中,这种愤怒似乎产生了溢出效应,变成拒绝在俄罗斯和西方之间做出选择。在最新间谍风波曝光之前所做的一项民调显示,更多的德国人认为,德国应该在俄罗斯与西方盟友之间保持不偏不倚政策,而不是选择亲西方战略。这种态度让德国持大西洋主义立场的外交政策当局及东部邻国感到警惕。德国外交官担心,政府的观点与他们本应代表的公众的观点相悖。As long as Germany’s economy is humming along as efficiently as its football team, its EU neighbours are likely to be careful and polite about any reservations they might have about Berlin’s foreign policy. However, thoughtful observers within Germany itself are worried that the success of the economy is reliant on a number of advantages that will erode with time.只要德国经济像其足球队一样高效发展,它的欧盟邻国就很可能在表达对柏林外交政策的保留意见时,保持谨慎和客气。然而,德国国内思虑周到的观察家担心,德国经济赖以成功的许多优势将随着时间推移而逐渐消失。Germany has lousy demographics. Its fertility rate of just over 1.3 children per woman means that the country’s population is both ageing and on a downward trajectory. Recent moves to reduce the pension age for some workers will make this problem worse.德国的人口结构不容乐观。德国的生育率为每位妇女生育1.3个孩子,这意味着德国人口正在老化,而且处于下行轨迹。最近德国出台的降低部分工人退休年龄的举措将让问题更加严峻。After years of domestic wage restraint, German workers are understandably pushing for higher pay, But that could erode Germany’s hard-won competitiveness, Meanwhile, German industry may be threatened by its reliance on exporting to austerity-stricken neighbours, even as China’s industrial firms move upmarket and attack the profitable niches that Germany has made its own.在多年限制国内薪资水平以后,德国工人寻求涨薪是可以理解的,但这可能侵蚀德国来之不易的竞争力,与此同时,德国工业可能因为依赖于对受紧缩之苦的邻国的出口而面临风险,而就在这个时候,中国的工业企业进军高端市场,并冲击德国原本占领的利润丰厚的利基市场。Chancellor Angela Merkel, whose quietly impressive leadership has contributed a lot to the positive image of modern Germany, will be well aware of the challenges that lie ahead. But, along with the rest of the nation, victory in Rio allowed her a moment to pause – and relish Germany’s golden moment.德国总理安格拉#8226;默克尔(Angela Merkel)低调而令人印象深刻的领导风格对现代德国的正面形象贡献良多。她将清楚地意识到德国面临的挑战。但德国获得巴西世界杯冠军,让她可以和其他德国人一起暂时停下来,享受德国的黄金时刻。 /201407/312897Peanut allergy has become a nemesis for increasing numbers of children and parents in recent years, forcing them to maintain nut-free households and prompting many schools to ban a childhood staple, peanut butter, from the lunchroom.近年来,花生过敏症日益威胁着孩子们的健康,这不仅迫使越来越多的家长不得不将所有坚果都清除出家庭环境,还促使不少学校将儿童时代的主食之一——花生酱请出了餐厅。When a child is allergic to peanuts, families must closely monitor everything the child eats both in and outside the home, because accidental consumption of peanuts could prove fatal. Many airlines no longer offer peanuts for fear that an allergic passenger might inhale peanut dust and suffer a life-threatening reaction at 30,000 feet.当一个孩子对花生过敏时,无论家里家外,他的家人都必须密切监控他塞进嘴里的任何东西,因为一不小心吃到花生就很可能有生命危险。许多航空公司的餐饮中都不再提供花生,以免对此过敏的乘客吸入花生粉末,以致在30000英尺(约9144米)的高空出现危及生命的过敏反应。The prevalence of peanut allergy among children in the ed States has risen more than threefold, to 1.4 percent in 2010 from 0.4 percent in 1997, according to a study by food allergists at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City. Most people with an allergy to peanuts are also allergic to one or more tree nuts, like walnuts, pecans or almonds.纽约市西奈山医院(Mount Sinai Hospital)一名食物过敏症专科医生的研究表明,美国儿童中的花生过敏症患病率从1997年的0.4%上升到了2010年的1.4%,增加了两倍还多。大多数花生过敏症患者同时也对一或多种坚果,如核桃、美洲山核桃或杏仁等过敏。To help protect such people from inadvertent exposure to nuts, labels on packaged foods often voluntarily state whether they were prepared in a facility that also processes nuts.为了防止这类人不至于意外接触到坚果,袋装食品的标签往往会主动声明该食品的生产设备是否也用于处理坚果。Some cities have nut-free bakeries that now sell products safe for allergic children, who can bring their own special, albeit expensive, cake or cupcake to a party.一些城市设有无坚果面包店,以向过敏的孩子们销售特殊、安全(但昂贵)的蛋糕或杯子蛋糕,供他们在参加聚会时携带。While experts doubt the necessity of some extreme measures taken to prevent indirect exposure to peanuts, the danger to someone with a peanut allergy who eats them is unquestioned.虽然关于是否有必要采取某些极端措施来防止间接接触花生,专家们持怀疑态度,但食用含有花生成分的食物对花生过敏症患者而言无疑十分危险。The potentially fatal reaction, called anaphylaxis, can occur with a child#39;s first exposure to peanuts: itchiness, swelling of the tongue and throat, constriction of the airway, a precipitous drop in blood pressure, rapid heart rate, fainting, nausea and vomiting.当儿童第一次接触到花生时,可能会发生一种具有潜在致命性的反应,称为过敏反应(anaphylaxis),其表现为:瘙痒、舌头和咽喉肿胀、气道收缩、血压骤降、心率加快、昏厥、恶心呕吐等。Unless the reaction is stopped by an injection of epinephrine (adrenaline), anaphylaxis can kill. In one infamous instance in 1986, Katherine Brodsky, 18, a freshman at Brown University with a known nut allergy, died after eating chili that a restaurant had thickened with peanut butter.如不及时通过注射肾上腺素遏制该反应,过敏反应可能导致死亡。1986年,布朗大学(Brown University)发生了一起著名的惨痛案例:18岁的大一新生凯瑟琳·布罗德斯基(Katherine Brodsky)对坚果过敏,她因在餐厅食用了用花生酱加稠的咖喱而死亡。There is no cure for nut allergies, although several preliminary studies suggest that it may be possible to temper a reaction to peanuts with immunotherapy. Like shots given for pollen allergies, the approach starts with exposure under the tongue to a minuscule amount of the offending peanut protein, followed by exposure to gradually increasing amounts under strict medical supervision.目前尚没有办法可以彻底治愈坚果过敏,但若干初步研究表明,采用免疫疗法或可缓和患者对花生的反应。这种方法与对付花粉过敏的方法类似:患者从舌下接触微量具有刺激性的花生蛋白开始,随后在严格的医疗监督下逐步加量。The latest study, conducted in Cambridge, England, and published in The Lancet last week, found that after six months of oral immunotherapy, up to 91 percent of children aged 7 to 16 could safely ingest about five peanuts a day, far more than they could before the treatment. About one-fifth of treated children reacted to ingested peanuts, but most reactions were mild, usually an itchy mouth. Only one child of the 99 studied had a serious reaction.最近的一项研究在英国剑桥(Cambridge)进行,并于上周发表在《柳叶刀》杂志(The Lancet)上。该研究发现,在接受口免疫疗法半年后,七至16岁的儿童中有91%可在一天内食用五颗左右的花生,且不会出现严重不良反应,这一安全摄取量远远超过了治疗前的水平。在接受治疗的儿童中约有五分之一在食用花生后仍会出现反应,但其大多数都非常轻微,通常只是嘴部发痒而已。在所研究的99名儿童中,只有一人出现了严重反应。When immunotherapy works, the research suggests, the severity of the allergy is lessened, enabling an allergic person to safely ingest small amounts of the offending protein. It is not known how long protection lasts without continued immunotherapy, however, and the researchers warned that no one should try it on his own. Further study is needed before the treatment can be used clinically, probably years from now.该研究显示,当免疫疗法起效时,过敏的严重程度有所减轻,这使过敏患者得以安全地摄取少量具有刺激性的蛋白质。目前尚不清楚在中止免疫疗法后这种保护作用还可以持续多久,但研究人员警告说,任何人都不应擅自进行此类尝试。若干年后,该疗法也许能够进入临床应用,但在此之前,还需要进一步的研究。Meanwhile, everyone with a peanut allergy is advised to carry an EpiPen for emergency treatment.此外,专家们建议,每一位花生过敏症患者都应随身携带EpiPen(预装肾上腺素的自动注射器),以备在必要时进行急救。Ideally, allergists would like to prevent the development of peanut allergy in the first place. Experts had thought that one way would be to keep fetuses and breast-fed babies from exposure to peanut protein by restricting consumption by pregnant and nursing women.在理想情况下,过敏症专科医生希望能将花生过敏扼杀在摇篮里。专家们认为,其方法之一是严格限制妊娠期和哺乳期妇女对花生食品的摄取,从而避免胎儿和母乳喂养期的婴儿接触到花生蛋白。Various studies had suggested that early exposure to peanut protein by infants with allergic tendencies could sensitize them and lead to a serious peanut allergy. In 2000, pregnant and nursing women were advised to avoid eating peanuts, especially if allergies ran in the family. And new mothers were told not to give babies peanuts before age 3, when digestive systems are more fully developed.为数众多不同的研究表明,具有过敏倾向的婴儿过早地接触到花生蛋白很可能会引起致敏,继而导致严重的花生过敏。2000年,专家们建议:妇和哺乳期妇女应避免食用花生,对于具有过敏性疾病史的家庭尤其如此。他们还告诫新妈妈们:在宝宝年满三岁,消化系统充分发育前,不要给他们吃花生。But this advice did nothing to curb the steady climb in peanut allergies, and it was abandoned in 2008.但这些建议丝毫未能遏制花生过敏症病例稳步攀升的趋势,因此,它们在2008年被撤销。Today, the thinking is exactly the opposite. Instead of restricting exposure to peanut protein by unborn or nursing babies, the tiny amounts that may enter the baby#39;s circulation when a pregnant or nursing woman eats peanuts might actually induce tolerance, not sensitization.今天,人们对付过敏症的思路与之前的完全背道而驰。人们不再严格限制未出生或哺乳期的婴儿接触花生蛋白,相反,人们认为,当妇或哺乳期妇女食用花生时,进入宝宝血液循环里的微量花生蛋白将诱导免疫耐受,而不是致敏。In a recent study of 8,205 children, 140 of whom had allergies to nuts, researchers found that children whose nonallergic mothers had the highest consumption of peanuts or tree nuts, or both, during pregnancy had the lowest risk of developing a nut allergy. The risk was most reduced among the children of mothers who ate nuts five or more times a month.在一项涉及8205名儿童(其中140人对坚果过敏)的近期研究中,研究人员发现,自身不过敏,且在妊娠期食用花生和/或坚果量最高的母亲所生下的孩子日后发生过敏症的风险最低。在母亲每个月至少食用坚果五次的孩子们中,上述风险的降幅最大。The researchers, led by Dr. A. Lindsay Frazier of Dana-Farber/Children#39;s Hospital Cancer Center in Boston, wrote: ;Our study supports the hypothesis that early allergen exposure increases the likelihood of tolerance and thereby lowers the risk of childhood food allergy.; They added that their data ;support the recent decisions to rescind recommendations that all mothers avoid peanuts/total nuts during pregnancy and breast-feeding.;波士顿市达纳法伯/儿童医院癌症中心(Dana-Farber/Children#39;s Hospital Cancer Center)的A·林赛·弗雷泽(A. Lindsay Frazier)士及其领导下的研究人员写道:“我们的研究持这一假说:对过敏原的早期接触可增加小儿对其产生耐受的可能,从而降低了儿童期食物过敏的风险。”他们又补充道,他们的数据“持最近做出的一项决定,即,不再建议所有母亲在妊娠期和哺乳期间避免食用花生/所有坚果。”The study was supported by Food Allergy Research and Education, a nonprofit, and published in December in JAMA Pediatrics.该研究受到非营利性组织——食物过敏研究和教育组织(Food Allergy Research and Education)的持,并发表于12月的《美国医学会期刊:儿科》(JAMA Pediatrics)上。According to an accompanying editorial by Dr. Ruchi Gupta, an associate professor of pediatrics at Northwestern University, ;some studies actually showed that avoiding peanuts during pregnancy increased the risk of a child developing peanut sensitization.;在相关的员文章中,西北大学(Northwestern University)的儿科副教授鲁奇·古普塔(Ruchi Gupta)士表示:“一些研究表明,母亲在妊娠期避免接触花生的确会增加其子女对花生敏感的风险。”Further support comes from studies of other common food allergens. In an Israeli study of 13,019 infants, those who were exposed to cow#39;s milk protein as a breast-milk supplement in the first two weeks of life were less likely to become sensitive to it than infants first given cow#39;s milk much later.关于其他常见食物过敏原的研究进一步持了上述结论。在以色列的一项涉及13019名婴儿的研究中,与很晚才第一次饮用牛奶的婴儿相比,在出生后两周内就以母乳为主牛奶为辅的婴儿由于较早接触到了牛乳蛋白,就不那么容易对牛奶敏感。An Australian study of 2,589 babies found that those first introduced to egg at or near 1 year of age were more likely to develop an allergy to egg protein than those first given egg at 4 to 6 months of age.澳大利亚的一项关于2589名婴儿的研究发现,与四至六个月大时就开始食用鸡蛋的婴儿相比,在一岁左右才第一次在辅食中引入鸡蛋的婴儿更容易出现卵蛋白过敏。In her editorial, Dr. Gupta emphasized that further research was needed to understand how maternal diet affects the development of food allergies and ;why more and more children are developing food allergy and how we can prevent it.;古普塔士在她的文章中强调,仍需要进行进一步的研究,以了解产妇的饮食如何影响食物过敏症的产生,并为“为什么有越来越多的孩子发生食物过敏,对此我们应如何预防”等问题寻找。But for now, she said, ;pregnant women should not eliminate nuts from their diet, as peanuts are a good source of protein and also provide folic acid,; which can help prevent neural tube defects.但就目前而言,她认为“妇不应将坚果从食谱中删除,毕竟花生是蛋白质的良好来源,还可以提供叶酸”,而叶酸有助于预防神经管缺陷。 /201409/326497

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